Behaviorists are strong believers in hard determinism. Their most forthright and articulate spokesman has been B.
S he is propelled in this direction by environmental circumstances and a personal history, which makes breaking the law natural and inevitable. For the law-abiding, an accumulation of reinforcers has the opposite effect. Having been rewarded for following rules in the past the individual does so in the future. There is no moral evaluation or even mental calculation involved. All behavior is under stimulus control. Soft determinism represents a middle ground, people do have a choice, but that choice is constrained by external or internal factors.
Soft determinism suggests that some behaviours are more constrained than others and that there is an element of free will in all behavior. However, a problem with determinism is that it is inconsistent with society's ideas of responsibility and self control that form the basis of our moral and legal obligations.
Free will is the idea that we are able to have some choice in how we act and assumes that we are free to choose our behavior, in other words we are self determined. For example, people can make a free choice as to whether to commit a crime or not unless they are a child or they are insane.
This does not mean that behavior is random, but we are free from the causal influences of past events. According to freewill a person is responsible for their own actions. One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have free will; not all behavior is determined. Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences.
For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow and Rogers freedom is not only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings. Both see self-actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation setting us apart from all other species.
There is thus a line to be drawn between the natural and the social sciences. To take a simple example, when two chemicals react there is no sense in imagining that they could behave in any other way than the way they do. However when two people come together they could agree, fall out, come to a compromise, start a fight and so on. The permutations are endless and in order to understand their behavior we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do. However there is also an intermediate position that goes back to the psychoanalytic psychology of Sigmund Freud.
At first sight Freud seems to be a supporter of determinism in that he argued that our actions and our thoughts are controlled by the unconscious. However the very goal of therapy was to help the patient overcome that force.
- Legal Reductionism and Freedom..
- Legal Reductionism and Freedom.
- The Nature of Law.
Indeed without the belief that people can change therapy itself makes no sense. This insight has been taken up by several neo-Freudians. One of the most influential has been Erich Fromm Donald H. Wacome - - Zygon 39 2 An Explanatory Challenge to Moral Reductionism. Lei Zhong - - Theoria 78 4 Is the Brain a Memory Box? Against Freedom of Conscience.
Richard J. Arneson - unknown. Freedom of Speech Abridged?
- Legal Reductionism and Freedom | Martin V.B.P.M. van Hees | Springer!
- Legal Reductionism and Freedom - Martin V.B.P.M. van Hees - Google Books.
- Reductionist - definition of reductionist by The Free Dictionary.
Reductionism in Medicine: Social Aspects of Health. Elisabeth A. Wiley and Sons. Beyond Choice: Reproductive Freedom in the 21st Century. Alexander Sanger - - Public Affairs. A Renewed Discussion On Freedom. Haiming Wang - - Philosophy and Culture 27 6 Kari L. Theurer - - Philosophy of Science 80 5 The direction given to the conversation by the researcher through the questions presented in S11 : "And if it was your son?
In S12 , when he says: "With the experience I'm having, In this same discursive stretch, his speeches are characterized by contradictory significations. At times he identifies with his father Then he took me to the DPJ. I think this is important, the father wants to show to the son where the world of crime really takes you, In certain passages, Jorge shows himself as a more severe father than his own: I would take my son and leave him there for a while, and if I saw that he was still doing it and hadn't changed I would take him to the judge before he did it again.
Despite recognizing the specificity of the activity system in which Jorge makes this last statement, in which the adolescent seeks coherence with the image of someone "who now respects the law and order, and recognizes the need for limits", we must consider this enunciation as part of a chain of previous sequences in which he was passing judgments of value about the role of the father: "Everybody blames also the parents, but it's not always them" extracted from another episode of the same session or in S6 : "[the father must] e xplain to them, to teach them what is right and what is wrong, what is the drug, where it takes, so that the person can choose the right way".
Stretch S16 marks the moment when Jorge synthesizes narratively the restored image of his father amidst his reminiscences about the episode that marked the loss of his freedom. They are vivid, intense reminiscences that bring back dramatically, in direct discourse, the voices of his father, mother, of the police and his own voice; and indirectly the voices of the neighbors, of the 'element' and of 'the boys' with whom he practice delinquency, configuring the climax of the narrative. In it, amidst the game of identification with the positions of the son 'that doesn't make much of it', and of the father who tries to transmit values of conduct and orientation to his children, Jorge moves from the passive condition of the person who offends because he hangs around with offenders to the active one of the person that is capable of understanding his father's motives ; or to put it in another way, from the person who saw himself as a car stereo thief to the person who identifies the need to guide the son and that, if failing to fulfill his role, must ask the judge for help, as he revealed he would do S12 or to the police, as the father did S16 : " he didn't know what to do anymore, the guy was not aware of what he was doing anymore, he was going mad with me; "What he wanted was for somebody to go there and talk to me.
When seeing himself in this double condition, Jorge becomes capable of forgiving his father S20 : " I was not angry at him. Man, he is my old man. If on one hand the family, and especially the father, participates in Jorge's narrative as characters that measured the constructions of new significations around delinquency, on the other hand it is important to consider the role played there by the institutions directly linked to criminality.
Right at the start of the sequence, he brings up the themes of corruption and drug dealers to state both the population's lack of power with respect to the latter S4 , and the power of education in the prevention of the involvement with drugs S6. In S12 also enter his narrative the juridical institutions that he thinks should be better known by the teenagers in an attempt to prevent delinquency, although the strategy did not work in his own case.
The Nature of Law (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Up to this point the approach to these issues is essentially generic, where Jorge's own self does not seem to be implied, although expressing clearly the contradictions from which he can engender new significations about the themes under focus. It is, however, exactly in S16 that the topic becomes more full of meaning, when the social subjectivity of the police emerges.
His father calls the police in a last attempt to get the son away from delinquency, but what comes is a repressive police that beats up, handcuffs, and acts violently towards both the adolescent and his family, patronizing them The cop chewed him out 'Hey, this is no playground here This brings us back to the socio-juridical devices that historically led to the approach to poverty as a form of social deviation and to the close association between poverty and violence, as Foucault ; and Kolker , amongst others, point out.
Bringing the police in, his father contributed to determine Jorge's commitment, since that was not his first offense. On the other hand, the behavior of the police allowed Jorge to recognize his father's vulnerability, for although the latter had not committed any crime, he became a victim of the repressive police attitude, a condition in which he begins to identify with his son. This is a clear example of a situation of crisis that ends up promoting a subjective development and the development of the social system of those involved.
Legal Reductionism and Freedom
We have tried to make clear in the analyses above the importance of the dialogical exchanges between researcher and participant, by opening opportunities for Jorge to reflect, reconsider, and rebuild meanings about specific events of his life. As an eminently dialogical context, the verbal interactions present the interlocutors with opportunities of expression of themselves, and engender processes of resignification of the self and of its internal and external reorganization as part of the dialectical game between permanence and change in time.
The permanence of oneself, supported by practices of sustaining of the self Chandler, , reflects the need for narrative coherence of the self in time. The devices of sustaining of the self are activated especially when changes occur which are perceived as threatening, that is, when the flux of development begins to cause suffering and the present needs to be persevered at any cost.
- Folk Fears about Freedom and Responsibility: Determinism vs. Reductionism.
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- Folk Fears about Freedom and Responsibility: Determinism vs. Reductionism.
- Freewill vs Determinism;
- Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams (2nd Edition)?
- The Double Screen: Medium and Representation in Chinese Painting.
The self remains as if frozen in an eternal present. Everything points to the fact that the emotion acts in a direction opposite to the devices of sustaining of the self, that is, as an element of rupture of the coherence of the self in time, producing contradiction in the structure of the self, that narrow crack through which change becomes possible.
The episode related here is charged with opportunities of this type, as the emotional expressions pauses, cry, excitation, and sadness that appeared in stretches S4 , S6 , S12 , S16 , and S20 make clear. Considering that the narratives constitute the micro-genetic context in which the subjects build, against the backdrop given by the socio-institutional context, a sense of self intersubjectively sustained, lasting events such as those narrated by Jorge usually have special impact upon development.
By converting these events into narratives and in objects of negotiation of meanings in the dialogical situation, they are resignified, with the possibility of promoting changes in the subject, as we could observe in the case narrated here. The significations constructed by Jorge express a balance between the self-image of a delinquent and that of a citizen conscious of his mistakes and in process of change. Considering the nature of the systems of social signification in which delinquency is inserted, it is not an easy task, for Jorge or for anyone, to succeed in such resignification.
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