How to Know if Your Dog is Depressed... And What to Do About It
The primary purpose of the chapter is to provide dog owners with a basis of comparison in case a dog's body seems not to be functioning correctly. And although dogs may differ greatly in size, type of haircoat, nose and ear shape, and length of tail, they are all alike physiologically: a 6-pound Yorkshire terrier has all of the same parts as a pound Newfoundland. A dog's coat forms an insulating layer between his skin and the external environment.
It helps to keep him warm in winter and protects him from the heat and sun in summer. A dog's coat can be short, medium, or long and is either coarse or fine. Different types of coats require specific kinds of care and grooming. All dogs lose hair, or shed, all year long.http://matronics.in/genrico-azithromycin-100mg-drogas.php
A veterinary guide to treating itchy skin in pets
Dogs with double coats may shed large amounts of fur from their undercoats in the spring and fall. Although all dogs should be groomed regularly, it is especially important to groom long-coated dogs often or the shed hairs will form mats and tangles instead of falling out. Not only does it protect a dog's body from the loss of fluids, electrolytes, and proteins, but it also serves as a barrier against infection. Unlike humans, dogs do not perspire through their skin to cool themselves, but only through their feet. This is an inefficient cooling system because the surface area for evaporation is very small.
Therefore, dogs also help to cool themselves by panting, which allows water evaporation from the tongue and mouth. In some cases excess panting may be a sign of disease. Their skin also helps maintain body temperature. The blood vessels in the skin either dilate to cool the body, or constrict to retain body heat when it's cold.
A dog's skin also performs the same function as human skin: it conveys sensations of touch, pain, heat, cold, and so on. A healthy dog's coat is shiny and full and his skin is clear and free of sores, scabs, redness, or scaly patches.
A scruffy-looking coat or dry skin can be signs of a dermatologic problem or may indicate a systemic illness. If dark brown or black spots are present on a dog's skin from the time of birth, they may be normal pigmentation, but if spots or discoloration should suddenly appear, they should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis. Dogs do, however, see some colors and are not completely color-blind, as was once believed. Owners are sometimes concerned when a dog's eyes seem to have a bluish or yellowish glare when the animal is looking toward the light.
This is the reflection from a region of the retina called the tapetum.
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The tapetum reflects light back to the retina, further enhancing a dog's night vision. Dogs over eight years of age sometimes develop a cloudy appearance to the lenses of their eyes. This condition may be nuclear lenticular sclerosis see page , which does not affect a dog's vision, but should be distinguished from cataracts by a veterinarian. Another possible cause for owner concern is a pinkish membrane that sometimes appears in the inside corner of a dog's eye, partially covering the eyeball.
This membrane is called a third eyelid nictating membrane and is present in all mammals except humans.
Signs of Illness in Dogs
The third eyelid pops up automatically when a dog retracts its eyes pulls them back into the eye sockets. It protects and cleans the eyeball and is more noticeable in dogs with prominent eyes and flat faces brachycephalic breeds such as pugs, Pekingese, Boston terriers, English bulldogs, and Lhasa apsos.
Because their eyes are not set deep into their sockets, these dogs are very susceptible to eye damage. A common eye condition in some dogs is cherry eye, in which the glands in the third eyelid become enlarged and appear like a red cherry in the corner of the eye see page Sight hounds, or coursing dogs such as greyhounds, Afghans, borzois, Irish wolfhounds, salukis, and Scottish deerhounds, locate and chase their prey by sight rather than scent.
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